PUBLICATION : March 2019

Land Use Land Cover Dynamics and Prediction Analysis Using Cellular Automata Markov Model in Raniganj Coalfield Area, West Bengal, India

Amit Sarkar
Senior Research Fellow, University of Calcutta Kolkata-700019, India Vivekananda College for Women Barisha, Kolkata- 700008


Human induced changes in landscape patterns are being increasingly recognized as critical factors influencing global change (Ruishan, A., 2013).In Raniganj coalfield and its adjoining areas, the continuous loss of forest and continuous increase of mining quarry is becoming threat to landscape pattern, atmospheric environment, biodiversity and human vulnerability (Kumar, J., 2003). Therefore it is urgent necessary to monitor the environmental influence of open cast coal mining on landscape pattern. Land useland cover alteration and predictionare analyzedinErdas Imagine and Idrisi Andes software usingremotely sensed data and GIS technology.It is found that from 1973 to 2015, there was a vast decrease in the area of forest, agriculture and river andmuch of this landscape was transformed into fallow, quarry and urban land. The CA Markov model predicted that urban land will continue to grow from 2015 to 2030 andincreased urban areais clustered around Asansol, Durgapur, Raniganj and Barakar city. This model is also predicted that agriculture, fallow, quarry land will continue to grow by 2030. But the reduction of forest will be increased.

Islamic banking- a new dimension in India

Dr. Mohsina Khan , Dr.Nida Shireen
Department of Banking and Business Economics MLSU, Udaipur

Islamic Banking is system of Banking consistent with shariah laws, which is against the collection or payment taxes. According to Islam, interest leads to inflation, and accumulation of interest leads to increasing divide amongst the rich and poor. In the Islamic mortgage transaction, instead of loaning the buyer money to purchase the item, a bank might buy that itself from the seller, and re-sell it to the buyer at a profit, while allowing the buyer to pay the bank installments.Islamic Banking has a huge market in India as is the largest Muslim populated country in the world. It can address the long drawn issue of ’Financial inclusions’ and will create a feel good factor among Muslims. Muslims would come out of ‘isolation’ and it can be used as a facilitating tool to combat terrorism in few states in India. Indian government can gain diplomatic advantage to make financial dealings with Muslims dominated nations and can attract equity financing the fiscal deficit.
There exist significant challenges to materialize the objectives of expansion of Islamic Banking in India Lack of experts in this field leads to differences in interpretation and compliance with Shariah laws.  Moreover in case of India, Banking regulation Act of 1949 needs to be suitably modified to introduce Islamic Banking. New Standard Accounting practices have to be developed. Islamic Banking per say goes against the secular framework of our nations and can create financial segregation. It can also be exploited politically, so it can be seen in the right light.There is a need to customize and advertise Islamic banking to make it equality to make it equally attractive to Non-Muslims. The product trends are positive in India and given and given the double digit growth of Islamic Banking in other Asian countries like Asian countries like Asia and Singapore, it is definitely a viable operation for India.

Reasons of Migration in India and its Male Female Differentials

Ramya Ranjan Behera1, Deepak Panda2, Pritirekha Daspattanayak3
Ravenshaw University, Cuttack

Migration is a very important component of population dynamics at regional level. Migration implies a permanent, or at least a semi-permanent, change in the place of residence of individual or individuals from one location to another. The present study examines the reasons of migration in India taking into consideration the major 18 states in India using latest NSSO and Census data. Spatial mobility of population is a universal phenomenon; movement from one locality to another is always induced by a set of factors. The reason for migration is a vital aspect of internal migration because it reveals the factors which are responsible for migration either it may be pull factors which are the attractive factors or it may be push factors which are negative in nature and repel people to move out. It also tends to show the actual socio-economic condition under which a person migrates. The study reveals the reasons of migration for males and females separately. Much of male migration is for economic reasons whereas females migrate mostly for social reasons. 
Key words:  NSSO, Census, Push Factor, Pull Factor, etc.

“Employees” perception towards menstrual leave special reference to it employees in Bengaluru

Alan Lukose


Dynamic changes are taking place in companies that has led many managers to better appreciate the necessity and the advantages of comprehensive human resource management. This pressure to change has also helped to generate numerous social innovations within the field of human resource management. The purpose of the study was to know the employees perception towards the menstrual leave policy.  We have done an exploratory research. Primary and secondary sources were used to collect the data. The study gives the insight about the employees’ perception towards menstrual leave policy special reference to IT sector in Bengaluru.The present study made an attempt to assess the perception of employees towards Menstrual Leave policy.

Health status of the Hill-korwa women in Sarguja district, Chhattisgarh: an Anthropological assessment

Irshad Khan1 J.K. Nayak2


The present study was carried out to determine present health status of selected Hill Korwa tribal women of Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh. Hill Korwa is one of the PVTGs of Chhattisgarh. A total of 307 households comprising of 131 individuals of Sarguja district were selected purposively and interviewed through the help of a pre-tested structured scheduled for the collection of health related data various anthropometric health status was calculated by Body Mass Index. Like other tribal people of India Hill Korwa tribe also have been facing a lot of problems like; lack of health awareness, Malnutrition and food habit. In this present paper we can see various results on health status for example, about 13% Hill Korwa women under 15-45 years shows 18.32% moderate CED, 16.79% mild and 37.4% low weight CED. Where a health facility is far from satisfactory and it was observed that poverty, lack of awareness, poor road connectivity and communication still remains a constraint for improvement of nutritional, maternal and child health services among the Hill Korwa tribe. The results of the present study will be useful in proper implementation of the health programmes for the upliftment of the primitive tribes of Chhattisgarh. 

Present Scenario of Women in Higher Education in India-Opportunities and Challenges

Moumita Sinha
Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science, Nistarini College (Under SKBU), Purulia-723101, WB

Education has a vital role in dynamic nature of a society as well as a country towards affirmative direction. Liberalism of a society appreciably depends on the educational rank and educational quality of women, because women are the exclusive hauler of prospect generation. Children initiate their first learning from their mothers. Children find outknowledge to build up their characters, to expand good traits and morals within them from their mothers. So, if a woman becomesskilled, then entire society, entire nation will be educated. Currently in our country women education especially their enrollment in higher education are being emphasized. Without higher educational qualities or degrees, women will not be able to compete with others in job market; in upshot of that they will be economically dependent on other family members; unemployment, pitiable educational status, gender biasness will make them  incapable in family as well as in society. But great past and present instances of world explain to about huge potentiality of women. Women higher educational status and empowerment are urgently required for the concurrent richness of our society. To extend the essence of higher study among women and lessening gender gap in higher education, India Government has thought the matter seriously and initiatedfew action plans successfully. Besides the Co-education colleges, institutes and universities, a number of colleges and universities are dedicated solely for women studies. Financial assistanceas scholarship, stipends are being provided to the optimal poor meritorious girl pupils to carry out their higher education in spite of a number of barriers like poverty, pressure from family as well as society due to conservativeness; early marriage, burden of domestic work as well as responsibilities towards family members, nourishment of offspring, gender biasness in family; child labour; enhanced frequency of violence, crime and injustice to them. An effort has been granted in current review article to share the present scenario of women education after 12th standard. The opportunities or amenities they are being provided as well as the challenges or the barriers they are facing in the way of higher studies are discussed in recent paper.

Role of Digitalization in Propelling Growth of Tourism Sector in India

Sodi Jasbir Kaur
Assistant Professor Department of Commerce H.R.College of Commerce & Economics


Travel industry has witnessed transformation at an exponential rate majorly due to digital innovation across the globe. There is no segment in travel ecosystem that is untouched by digitalization. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, the travel and tourism sector contribution has outpaced the global economy which can be witnessed by its contribution to world’s GDP to a total of 10.2% p.a. (US $7.6 trillion). So far as the employment is concerned, sector supported 292 million jobs in 2016 which is 1 in 10 of all kind of jobs in the world. The global visitors exports i.e. the money spent by foreign visitors accounts for about 6.6% of total world exports and almost 30% of world’s total services exports. (Source: Economic Times)Countries that are otherwise not blessed with commercial or agricultural conducive atmosphere rely heavily on tourism for its sustainability. This has also proved to be true for most of the cities/states in India wherein major livelihood income and employability depends on tourism. With digital revolution all around this industry has received its digital innovation much earlier than other sectors and has continued to grow exponentially in digital innovations.This article reflects on the role of digitalization in travel transformation. It was found that digitalization has helped in increasing the promotion and awareness and convenience of travel but so far as operational cost is concerned there is a long way for digitalization to help improve operational cost and efficiencies.

Scenario of Indian Rural Market: Importance, Challenges, Opportunities and Emerging Trends

Dr. Ranbir Singh
Associate Professor PCJ School of Management, Maharaja Agrasen University, Kalu Jhinda, Himachal Pradesh


Rural market has wonderful potential and fastly growing as compared to urban market. Due to the green revolution in India, the rural areas are consuming a large quantity of industrial and urban manufactured products. In recent years, rural markets have acquired great importance in countries like China and India, as the overall growth of the economy has resulted into significant increase in the purchasing power of the rural communities. Majority of population in India is residing in rural areas and it leads to increase in the demands of different products. In this article importance, challenges, opportunities and emerging trends in rural market are discussed and it shows the real scenario of rural market.

Scheduled tribal women’s education: current status and challenging issues in India

V. Rajkumar
Assistant Professor of Economics, Rathnavel Subramaniam College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India


Tribals constitute a considerable portion of population in many developing countries like India. As per the 2011 censes, there are 705 Scheduled Tribe communities in India with a population of 10,42,81,034. However, the tribal people are marginalized in the Indian society in many respects. In tribal community, women are considered as an economic asset and they play a vital role in their religious ways of life. Nevertheless, they are still lagging far behind in the different walks of life such as good health, education, employment and empowerment etc. Among these, education is a crucial and fundamental requirement for weaker sections like tribal society and lack of it is largely responsible for the backwardness and exploitation. Particularly, large number of tribal women missed their education at different levels and in order to empower them there is a great need of providing opportunities so as to enable them to assume leadership qualities for economic self-reliance and even social transformation. In this backdrop, this paper an attempt to analyse the present status of tribal women’s education with literacy rate, gross enrolment ratio, dropout rates and Gender Parity Index in India. The entire analysis is based on various secondary sources of information such as Census of India, Internet Selected Educational Statistics, Government of India, Ministry of Human Resources, National Commission for SCs & STs, Statistics of School Children, etc. The findings and suggestions are very useful for implementing schemes that can help in improving the backwardness of tribal women living in rural areas.

Farm loan waiver- A political contrivance or agenda for amelioration of farmers

Dr. Vivek shukla And Prof. Somesh kumar shukla
Lucknow, India

The debate over the issue of agricultural loan waiver schemes is on its peak with discussions looming around the farmers who have benefitted from such loan waiver. All political parties are vying with each other to prove that the scheme that they come up with is better than that provided by the other. Many small and big political parties have been announcing loan waiver schemes in different states since 2014. It has been estimated that the outstanding agriculture loan until October 2018 was 10500 Billion out of which 23% was waived of since 2014 .  
However, whether such activities are actually aimed at amelioration of farmers from the shackles of poverty or they are just political gimmicks thrown about for the personal benefits of these parties is the main matter of concern. Moreover, the amount of revenue lost as a result of such waivers is so enormous that another concern which crops in is that of the growing NPAs in the already tensed banking sector. This paper will look into the core aspect of all these issues mentioned above and put forward some recommendations that may help in overcoming them.


Child nutritional status in Odisha: A study of trends, regional patterns and socioeconomic correlates

Ranajit Bera1, Sibabrata Das2, Ramya Ranjan Behera3
Department of Applied Geography, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack


India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world but it has not been able to tackle the problem of child undernutrition despite the plan and policies implemented in India. Odisha is the state where a large no of undernutrized children are seen in India. This paper tries to study about the trends and patterns of child undernutrition in the state of Odisha. For studying this NFHS-4 (2015-16) data has been taken and percentage of underweight, stunted and wasted children has been taken as indicators. To examine the regional patterns some socioeconomic factors also taken. Some statistical methods are used for analysis of data. The result has been found that the nutritional status of children in coastal part is better than other parts of the state. But child nutritional status in Odisha has improved over time. Correlation co-efficient analysis shows that the regional variation of undernutrition affected by many socioeconomic factors. Educational status is significantly associated with district level variations in child undernutrition.       

A study on investment pattern of working women investors with special reference to Erode city

Ms. G.Manju & Dr. N. Krishnamoorthy
Erode, India

Investment is the employment of funds on assets with the aim of earning income or capital appreciation. Investment means putting your money to work to earn more money or in other words it is sacrificing of money today for future return. From ancient times, women have been managing homes.  Hence they are called ‘Home makers.’  But since the last 10 to 15 years,this situation has been changing. These  days, i n all sorts of fields, women are working efficiently and enthusiastically along with men or if it is said that  women  work  more  efficiently  than  their  male  colleagues,  it  wouldn’t  be  an  exaggeration.  The percentage of working women is more. Previously Erode city was known only for the best education; but with the rapid paced development in the industry sector in the recent past, it is now known as ‘Employment Hub’ too. As the name suggests, the present research has been done to know the investment awareness among Indian working women investors with reference to Erode city. Now- a- days, women want to be financially independent and secure their future with enough funds.

Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding the importance of sports and extracurricular activities among higher primary school children in selected school at Hassan

Shridevi Teli
Senior Tutor, Department of child health Nursing, KAHER Institute of Nursing Sciences Belgavi-590010, (Karnataka), India

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on knowledge and attitude regarding the importance of sports and extracurricular activities among higher primary school children.Methods: Pre-experimental study was carried over a period of 3 months on 50 students of Vivekananda School at Hassan Karnataka. All 50 students enrolled in study. Results:  Result revealed that, The mean percentage of pre-test knowledge scores of respondents was 38.93% and the post-test was 79.2% with the enhancement of 40.26%.  and it is significant at 5% level. Among demographic variables analysed in the study it was inferred that there is a significant association between knowledge score and the selected demographic variables regarding importance of sports and extracurricular activities among higher primary school children knowledge scores at 5% level.Conclusion: Structured Teaching Programme is the best methods to  improve the knowledge and attitude regarding the importance of sports and extracurricular activities among higher primary school children. Key words:, sports and extracurricular activities Structured Teaching Programme, higher primary school children , effectiveness.

Unfolding the Global Spread of State Surveillance

Dr. Bhushan Arekar
Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Ramniranjan Jhunjhunwala College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Ghatkopar, Mumbai: 4000086


The study aims to explore the history of state surveillance in modern times. The research paper will argue that surveillance mechanisms have been perfected in the crucibles of the nation state system. The nation state system originated from the Treaty of Westphalia and by 20th century it has spread on a planetary scale. In the age of globalisation surveillance practices have also transcended the borders of the nation state. One distinguishing feature of modern surveillance is the use of cyber technology for global monitoring. The paper will use the ideas of Michel Foucault, especially his concept of disciplinary and biopolitical power to explain the functioning of modern surveillance modalities.

Education in the 21st Century: The Dynamics of Change

Arunima Anil
ICSSR Doctoral Research Scholar, Dept. of Sociology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, Pin: 695581

The present era is characterised by knowledge-based economies. The nature of education, the future of teaching – learning and the characteristics of schools undergoes a tremendous transformation in this century due to automation, globalization, workplace changes, better collaborations and more autonomy. Specific kinds of knowledge and skills are at most important in the 21st century. The information revolution leads our society into a digital era where we need to re-examine the nature of new generation students, role of the teachers and the new definitions attributed for schools in this century.

Women and sustainable development: A Descriptive Analysis with the Developing Regions of the Country

Dr. Ranjit Kr. Ghosh
Associate Professor of Economics Alipurduar College, Alipurduar


One of the important causes of environmental degradation at  present day world is the excessive pressure of population on natural resources like, land, water, minerals, forests, energy, etc. When the demand for these is not matched with the supply, competition among the people starts which encourages them to use the natural recourses beyond the normal capacity of the natural system. In such cases the role of women is inevitable to protect the environment. In almost all developing regions, in both rich and poor countries, women are often the primary users as well as managers of land, forest, water, energy and other natural resources. Women in rural areas of developing regions spend major parts of their day in growing food for family, gathering fuel wood, cooking and carrying water along with their normal duties in the family. Moreover, in many cases, the rural women are authorized for the selection of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides for different crops and also the maintenance of productive soil to nourish seedlings and plants. Women are also the better and systematic users, preservers and managers of biodiversity. Indigenous women have a special relationship to natural resources. So, women and sustainable development is highly correlated.

An analytical study of soil depth for support the vegetation: Special reference to Aurangabad district (M.S.)

Upendra Abhimanyu Pathade
Assistant Professor and Head Department of Geography G.M.D Arts, B.W. Commerce and Science College, Sinnar, Dist. Nashik -422103 (M.S) India


The vegetation of our planet is under the constant influence of the most diverse factors facilitating its development. These factors affecting the earth’s vegetation not only functioned in past geological periods but also present period of the earth’s history. Soil may be defined as divided rock material which contains mineral in soluble form that will support the growth of plants. It is largely depends upon the nature of parent rock, surface feature of relief, climatic conditions, natural vegetation and activities of man. Soil depth considering the unconsolidated material immediate the surface of the earth serves as natural medium for the growing plants also Soil depth defines the root space and the volume measures of soil from where the plants fulfil their water and nutrient demands. Proximately number of animals, insects and bacteria are also associated with this process. This paper attempts to study depth of soil and vegetation including common wild plants found Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. 

A study to evaluate the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching programme on knowledge regarding successful latching methods among Primi Para mothers at Shri Chamarajenrda Hospital, Hassan

Laxmi S Kamat
Senior Tutor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecological Nursing, KLEU’s Institute of Nursing Sciences Belgaum-590010,(Karnataka), India


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching programme (CATP) on the knowledge regarding successful latching methods among primi-para mothers.At shrichamarajenrda hospital, Hassan. Methods: Pre-experimental study was carried over a period of 3 months on 50 primipara mothers of shrichamarajenrda hospital, Hassan.Karnataka. All 50 primipara mothers enrolled in study.  Results:  Result revealed that, The mean percentage of post-test knowledge score (84.9 %) was higher than the mean percentage of pre-test knowledge score (39.9%). The calculated‘t’ value (24.48*) is greater than the table value (0.05, 49df) = 1.96. It showed a significant difference between mean pre and post- test knowledge scores. Calculated ? 2 values are showed significant association between age, family income/month.  Conclusion: computer assisted teaching programme (CATP) is the best methods toimprove the knowledge regarding successful latching methods among primi-para mothers. Key words:Effectiveness, CATP, Knowledge, Primi-para, Latching.

Rethinking Indo-Israel Relations: An analysis of India’s foreign policy

Sonam Bhavnani
PhD Scholar Amity University


India established diplomatic relations with Israel at the end of the cold war and since thenIndia has been making efforts to balance competing factors that complicate India’s relationwithIsrael. Although not a perfect partner, Israel is still one of the most powerful andinfluential countriesthat India can firmly count amongst its close friends. The article analyses the factorsthat have impacted Indo- Israel bilateral relations and the impact this bilateral relation has on India’s traditional relationship with the Arab World and Iran. 

Depression among community dwelling elderly

Srisailamaiah.Maheswara* and Srikanth Reddy.V**
Dept.of Psychology,Sri Venkateswara university,Tirupati.A.P.Inida.


Ageing is a natural and universal phenomenon which starts with conception and ends with death. Old age is frequently seen as a problematic time of one's life which brings various problems, the normal psychological problems that the greater part of the more established people encounters are: loneliness, isolation, stress and depression. Over the past several years, the prevalence of depression has been on the rise as a result of a few reasons, for example, demographic shifts to urban and rural regions and loss of small community support, quick social, economic changes, socio-technical changes, loss of joint family, changing values, and dual career families that show up outside the extent of individual control, inactive ways of life and prior pubescence. But our concern is about old age.   This study is an attempt to examine the level of depression among community dwelling elderly in a sample of 360 community dwelling elderly age group 60-65, 66-70 and 71-75 years living in urban and rural area of Ranga Reddy dist .Telangana State. To asses depression Geriatric Depression Scale-GDS-15 Telugu version was used. Results found those elderly people age groups 71-75 with poor economic status have high depression compared to other groups of community dwelling elderly. It found that depression was highly prevalent in the elderly population and increased with age and decrease in economic status.

A review on Deep Touch Pressure Therapy products for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Amrita Roy, Dr. Himadri Ghosh, Dr. Isha Bhatt
Banasthali Vidyapith, Vanasthali - 304022,Rajasthan (India)


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects children at an age as early as 2. Individuals with ASD often seek Deep Touch Pressure (DTP) Therapy as a form of treatment. Occupational therapists from across the globe often recommend children with ASD to wear weighted vest, wear compression vest or wrap weighted blankets around themselves to provide deep touch pressure (DTP) on the wearers body.In the recent times the potentiality of DTP has been revealed through various researches. Several wearable and non-wearable products have been developed that are based on the DTP. Wearable Technologies (WT) have been identified to enhance the life of the individuals suffering from ASD. The current study aims to identify the efficacy of DPT based wearable and non-wearable products in the well-being of the ASD children.

Witchcraft – an abominable practice against women

Dr. Nandini Sahay
Assistant professor Amity institute of social sciences, amity university Sector-125, noida, uttar pradesh-201313, india

Superstition pervades orthodox Indian society. A large number of women in rural and semi-urban areas in India are declared as witches and are killed.  Witch hunting is an outcome of this culture and brings shame for the country particularly in the states of Bihar and Jharkhand. A secondary research was conducted with an objective to collect evidence on the witch hunting. State of Jharkhand and Bihar were selected for this research. A possible role which a social worker can play to solve this problem, has been proposed in this research.

India’s efforts to combat climate change

Lipika Sharma Sachin Rastogi


The world’s climate is changing and will continue to change into the coming century at rates projected to be unprecedented in recent humanmemoire. Various steps are taken in this area by international community starting from Stockholm 1972. The recent update in this area isCOP24 from 2nd to 14th December 2018 under the umbrella of United Nations Framework convention on climate change. India is party to all the international efforts in this area hence actively working towards combating climate change and global warming. India has detailed in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDCs) what steps it has taken and going to take in future in this direction in COP 21 in 2015. This research paper is going to highlight the legal mechanisms developed by India to mitigate and reduce the efforts of global warming and will discuss in detail the INDCs which gives a low-carbon, climate-resilient future plan. Further paper will also discuss India’s Climate Plan which is comprehensive and balanced action plan and includes Adaptation, Mitigation, requirement for Finance, Technology transfer, Capacity Building and considers as rapid growth till 2030. The paper makes an attempt to highlight the India’s Ambitious, Comprehensive, Equitable and Balanced efforts to combat Climate Change.

Corporate Governance as Determinant of Firm Performance: Evidence from Indian Industry

Arka Kumar Das Mohapatra
Professor Department of Business Administration Sambalpur University Jyoti Vihar, Burla,Sambalpur 768 019, Odisha,India


The interrelationship between corporate governance and firm performance has always remained a matter of discussion among the academia, researchers, analysts and policy formulators. A good number of prior researches on the topic have documented evidences that good corporate governance results in better firm performance. Claims contrary to this also prevail. The present study undertaken to examine if corporate governance determines firm performance especially in the Indian Real Estate industry, reveals that corporate governance has a positive determining effect on the firm’s performance, thus corroborating with the findings of majority of the prior researches.   The study was based on six parameters of corporate governance, namely, Board Structure, Audit Committee, Shareholders’ Grievances, Remuneration Committee, Nomination Committee and  Disclosure Practices,  and three distinct measures of firm  performance such as Tobin’s Q,  Earnings before Interest and Tax, and Earning Per Share.  The data used in the study were collected from the CMIE Prowess data base particularly prowessiq(1.91) comprising of 28 Large and Mid Cap companies under S&P BSE 500 covering a period of 10 years 2008-09 to 2017-18, and forming a panel data of 280 observations with 7 cross sections data. It was therefore concluded that better the corporate governance better will the firm’s performance.

SHG reduce poverty and inequality in Darjeeling district of West Bengal

Dr. Bhajan Chandra Barman*
Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Netaji Nagar College, Kolkata-700092, West Bengal, India


In India, poverty is the root cause of many socio-economic problems including population explosion, unemployment, child labour, etc. Over the years, poverty has proved to the biggest hurdle in the way of success of India’s development. Since the inception of planning era, the government of India has been undertaking several anti-poverty programmes. However, these programmes have failed to reach the poverty stricken population due to inadequate and ineffective implementation. The problem of unemployment and poverty has been still remaining. Under the circumstances, we need a specially prepared target oriented plan and programme for the upliftment of the rural poor so that they can enjoy good standard of living. The rural poor, especially women join together for self help and form self-help group (SHG). The main objective of this paper is to examine how much SHGs have been able to reduce poverty and inequality among the poor in the study area. The study is mainly based on primary data collected from Kharibari block of Darjeeling district, West Bengal. We have selected 40 SHGs which are under Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana  (SGSY) from the study area. All the groups were formed in the year 2011-12. Taking 4 members randomly from each group altogether 160 members have been selected. Data have been collected through structured interview schedule in two phases from the same sample. The first phase was 2011-12 and the second one was 2017-18. Thus, pre-SHG period was 2011-12 and post-SHG period was 2017-18. In the present study, some statistical tools like percentage, paired-t test, poverty measurement indexes (i) Headcount index (incidence of poverty) (ii)   Poverty gap index (depth of poverty) and  (iii) Squared poverty gap index (severity of poverty) have been used to test the hypotheses. Moreover, to measure inequality among the sample households, we have used Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve. From the results and discussion it is observed that the average income of the sample households increased considerably after joining SHG. To measure poverty,   Rs. 5452 per month per household has been considered as the poverty line for the year 2017-18.  During 2011-12, it was found that among the sample households 144 of them were BPL household. However, after getting the benefit of microfinance it was found that a total number of 35 BPL households, i.e., 24.31% sample households have been able to cross the poverty line. Results also show that incidence of poverty, depth of poverty and severity of poverty reduced considerably.  Lorenz curve and the values of Gini Coefficient show that SHGs have been able to reduce income inequality among the sample households. Thus, it can be concluded that SHGs by reducing poverty and inequality among the poor have been able to bring a sustainable development at the grass roots level. Not only that, SHGs have  also created an individual identity for the   poor women in the society and have  given a freedom to live the life according to their choice.

Women and the Electoral Process in India

Dr. Jyotika Teckchandani
Assistant Professor, Amity Institute of Social Sciences, Amity University, Noida


As 2019 parliamentary elections is approaching, the question of women is likely to assume significance. It has been observed that during the last few years the participation of women in electoral voting has increased considerably.  In 16 out of 29 states of India, more women voted than men in 2014 elections.  Women turnout during India's 2014 parliamentary general elections was 65.63%, compared to 67.09% turnout for men. At the same time, Indian women have lowest representation in Parliament; they make up a mere 11.6% of the 542-member Lok Sabha and 11% of the 245-member Rajya Sabha. In 2014, just 8.1% of candidates for the Lok Sabha were women. Thus, women continue to be underrepresented in legislative bodies at the national and state level and at the same time in Political Parties. The paper focuses on women as both voters and contestants in election. It also identifies the reasons for low representation of women   in the formal political structure and the methods which can be adopted to increase the political participation of women in India.

Occupational stress on employees in information technology organizations-a study

Dr. D.Balasubramanian
Assistant Professor, PG. and Research Department of Commerce, Periyar EVR Government Arts College, (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-24) Tiruchirappalli of Tamil Nadu-620 023


Presently a days, the word related pressure is turning into an issue of worry for a wide range of Associations. Data Technology based associations are not a special case in this respect. In Tiruchirappalli District which is an IT center point, Information Technology (IT) part is among the best ten working environments in India where feelings of anxiety because of work are high. However, there is a selection of present day innovation and advancement in IT part, representatives have over-burden of work and are worried. Employees of IT segment are not ready to adapt to the new quick changes in this segment which results in pressure. Through this examination, an endeavor has been made to distinguish the reasons for worry among the IT representatives. This considers features the effect of weight on the physical and mental states of IT representatives. Through this investigation an endeavor has additionally been made to concentrate on the pressure lessening programs (push the board) executed by chosen IT associations. The after effect of the investigation demonstrates that there are a few reasons for worry regardless of the endeavors made to diminish word related worry among the IT employees. This investigation shows that, greater part of representatives confronted physical and mental worry because of overwhelming work stack.

A Study of Teaching Competency among Teachers in Secondary School Level in Allahabad District

Anjula Tiwari1, Dr.Seema Mallick2
School of Education, SHUATS Allahabad, UP, India

The present study is intended to evaluate the teaching competency of different groups working at secondary schools level in Allahabad District in UP. This study is performed by a data-set with sample-size of 100 teachers. This data-set has been selected to investigate the competency. By the analysis involved in the study, result has been found that the competency of female teachers is higher than the male teachers working in secondary schools. Also by the analysis it has been found that the competency of urban teachers is higher than the rural teachers. The competency of experienced teachers is higher than inexperienced teachers but their competency has been found the negligible positive.

Exclusion of Socio-Economic Conditions of Southern Tribe: It’s Impact on Livelihoods

Kakani Madhava
Ph. D Research Scholar Centre for the Study of Social Exclusion & Inclusive Policy (CSSEIP) School of Social Sciences University of Hyderabad (UoH) Hyderabad-500046.

Arguments for knowing the exclusion of socio-economic conditions and the impact on livelihoods of Yanadi tribe in present scenario. Now a days development projects in southern part of Andhra Pradesh are emerging new source of exclusion in the scheduled areas. This paper argues that, tribal development strategies need to go through the present livelihood conditions of the tribal communities and aim at tribal concentrated plain areas such as infrastructure, socio economic conditions and employment generation. Positive Development policies have great potential but the development programs and policies still need to be inclusive in some areas.

Strategies and Issues of E- Waste Recyclers

Dr. M. Anbukarasi and Mrs. M. Nithyasri
Department of Commerce Bharathiar University Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India


The economy is being triggered with advanced technology and up gradation, this in turn have degraded the environment and increased the amount of E-Waste of the economy. The E-Waste is being land filled and managing of these waste have became a threat to the society. The present study focuses on the managing strategies and issues faced by the recyclers of Coimbatore district. The data is being collected purposively from the 30 recyclers using structured interview schedule and was analyzed using One-Way ANOVA and ranking. The study finds that NGOs also contribute E-Waste for recycling, ICT equipments are given special treatment in recycling and shredding is encouraged while recycling have a significant difference towards age, education and years of recycling. There is a significant difference for Households are the major source of E-Waste, Consumer electronics have much intention in recycling, encouraging acid test for extracting the substances of E-Waste and Gloves/masks is mandatory while recycling for these strategies towards the nature of business. The study also concluded that there has a lack of regulations, government interference and no advanced equipments/ infrastructure as the major issues faced by the recyclers of E-Waste.