PUBLICATION : August 2019

Patronage Patterns at Karle: An Analysis of Dana Tradition

Poonam Kumari
Ph.D. SCHOLAR (Ancient indian history) Centre for historical studies Jawaharlal nehru university


In the scholarship on Indian Epigraphy though we find scattered references of inscriptions from numerous Buddhist sites in the western Deccan reflecting upon the society, economy, religious and political conditions of the region in the period of the development of these sites. Still there is dearth of independent study of these Buddhist sites reflecting upon their present condition and their interaction with the people. By focusing on the patronage patterns at Karle I have tried to make an attempt to answer the questions arising in the minds of common people looking at these Buddhist monastic establishments. The practice of ‘Dana’ tradition and the idea of attaining merit seem to be central reason behind the appearance of such structures in this region. Besides these, other factors responsible for their existence have been brought to light in this article.

Job- satisfaction of primary female teacher with special reference to undivided Darrang district of Assam

Usha Rani Deka
Asstt. Professor, Education Deptt. Mangaldai College,Darrang,Assam

Primary education and the development of a nation are interdependent. It is the milestone of our national educational system which help to proceed our nation in the ladder of upliftment and to reach its desired goals. With this end in view, it is called as mass education. To be a successful teacher, one should have both inborn and acquired qualities. It is found that the art of teaching can be acquired as far as possible. To increase motivation and perseverance towards teaching, the teacher should be free from all kinds of mental tension and anxiety and a convenient environment should be prevalent within their school campus.
But, it is observed that lots of problems faced by the teacher-community particularly by the female teacher of primary level under the study area. So, an attempt has been made to findout some relevant factors stand in the way of convenient working conditions of the primary female teachers under the study area in relation to infrastructural facility, socio-economic status and job-satisfaction.

A discourse on the religious interpretations of Sankaracharya and Vivekananda regarding the concept of Jiva in the Philosophy of Vedanta

Dr. Naba Kumar Kalita
Dept. of Philosophy Associate Prof. and HOD Chhaygaon College

As a practical Vedantist, Vivekananda identifies the true nature of Atman with Brahman itself. In accordance with him, we must say that the soul is immortal, pure, omnipresent and omniscient. Like the Advaita, Vivekananda too maintains that the self, the Atman is in everybody among us, and so it is omnipresent. The Atman in bondage is called jiva. Vivekananda puts that the real nature of man is freedom. He also says that freedom means self-determination. More or less in a Vedatic style, Vivekananda describes that the apparent incompatibility of Karma and freedom is merely apparent. According to the Advaita , when the soul becomes perfect, it must become, one with Brahman, the Absolute. 
Sankara, on the other hand, affirms that though non-difference of the finite selves from Brahman is the ultimate truth (Jiva-brahmaiva naparah), the jiva being under the sway of avidya or maya, fails to realize this truth. Only when right knowledge dawns dispelling ignorance that the jiva recognizes Brahman in him. But this knowledge is not an end to itself, rather it may be said that knowledge serves the purpose of a means for the highest realization, the realization of identity between the seeker and the sought, the jiva and Brahman. To become identified with Brahman is the aim of the finite being, to achieve accurate knowledge about the world and the multiplicity around him is the way for attaining that goal. Sankara expects that the practical earthly life too, can be transcended. From such a transcended point of view, everything connected with the world turns out to be false and unreal.

Religion and Swami Vivekananda

Dr. Debajit Baruah
Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy Rampur Anchalick College, Rampur, Assam


Swami Vivekananda was one of the most outstanding contemporary Indian philosophers. He dedicated his whole life for the upliftment of the downtrodden mass of India. Swami Vivekananda very well understood the social role of religion. As a matter of fact the tools that Vivekananda used to uplift the common masses from poverty, ignorance etc. were religion and education. His concept of religion is that religion is the manifestation of the divinity already in man. This means that man is already divine. This divinity is not restricted to people of any particular religion. As a human being everyone possesses this divinity irrespective of one’s religion, caste, sex etc. This is not a new form of religion. Every existing religion of the world is preaching this ideal from time immemorial. Every religion in this sense is a complement to each other. And this is the religion what Vivekananda called universal religion. Every form of religion is universal in the true sense of the term.

Study of utilization pattern of antenatal care services among rural women of district Patiala

Dr.Ritu Bala and Balwinder kaur Lamba
Department of Social Work Punjabi university Patiala- 147002


Maternal and child health includes the broad meaning of health promotion and prevention, curative and rehabilitative health care for mothers and children. It includes areas such as pregnancy,antenatal period,birth , post natal period. It also includes child health, school health, health of a handicap child, adolescence and all other  health aspects of a child. (WHO,1976 ). It  includes the physical, mental and social well being of women during pregnancy. Since there is no reliable way to predict which woman will develop pregnancy-related complications, it is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies.Antenatal care is the care of the woman during pregnancy(Saxena, 2017). The primary aim of antenatal care is to achieve a healthy mother and a healthy baby. Ideally this care should begin soon after conception and continue throughout pregnancy  (Park, 2015). Thus,  adequate antenatal care may prove to be an efficient tool in improving  maternal and child health. Different studies have found that inadequate antenatal care has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Methods -District Patiala is divided into ten health blocks- four health blocks are urban and six health blocks are rural. As the present study deals with rural women so sample was collected from rural health blocks only. Multi-stage sampling method was used to draw the sample. In all, thirty villages were covered under the study. In the second stage of the sampling, ten pregnant women from each selected village were chosen purposively to meet the objectives of the study. In all, three hundred pregnant women were taken as the sample of the study.
Results-In the present study  it was found that pregnancy registration of 66% of the respondents  was done during second trimester. About 26percent of the pregnancy registrations were done in first trimester. 50 percent of the respondents took 2 ANC visits while 23.67 percent respondents took 3 ANC visits. 20 percent of the respondents had received one dose of Tetanus Toxoid while 67 percent of the respondents  received both doses of Tetanus Toxoid injections. It was found that  93.33 percent of the respondents consumed the tablets while 6.67percent of respondents did not consume any IFA tablets.
Conclusion- The present study revealed that caste, religion, education and occupation  did not  show any  any significant difference in regards to utilization of ANC services by rural women of district Patiala  and majority of respondents had inadequate utilization

A Geographical Study on Quality of Life in the Slums of Kolkata Municipal Corporation

Avishek Banerjee and Uma Sankar Malik
Department of Geography, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India


The present paper is an attempt to highlight the quality of life (QOL) that exists in the slums of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). The paper examines whether the quality of life is same in all the slums or not and a comparison has been made between different slums. Among slums of Kolkata Municipal Corporation 10 slums have been selected for study area. For determining the quality of life in slums, composite index and standard deviation techniques has been used. To calculate the composite index 30 variables have been chosen to determine QOL. The result shows that there are variations in quality of life in the selected slums. So, different development strategy for each category of slum is suggested for their improvement. 

Sanitation Condition in Deoria District: A Geographical Study.

Lalji Kumar Kushwaha
Research Scholar, Department of Geography, B.H.U., Varanasi-221005

Sanitation is one of the important Millennium Development Goals which covers the important aspects of management of human excreta, domestic and industrial wastewater and hazardous substances. A recently published world health organisation report places diarrhoel diseases at sixth place in the list of global killers and third in the list of morbidity (WHO2000). Open defecation poses significant health and environmental risks. Approximately India’s 31% of total population (3.7bilion) residence in urban area.25% of total urban population lives in urban slums. A study by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) 3 estimated that India’s lack of sanitation coverage cost the country the equivalent of 6.4% of its 2006 gross domestic product. Study area is situated in eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, which is count in backward area in comparison to western Uattar Pradesh.